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TCP/IP is important for the success of the internet because it separated the end to end stateful link control at the enpoints from the packet based routing in the nodes in the middle.
IP proved to be a very effective mechanism for handling and routing packet data in network routing nodes and the TCP service proved a very effective abstraction to let people built communicating applications. The other important facet of IP was the way in which it could easily be run over many different network types (hence the name inter-net) and so glue them together.
TCP builds on the connectionless IP packet transport, to provide a reliable byte stream end to end over the internet. It forms a reliable byte pipe that applications can use to send and receive data. It performs a number of tricks to do this, including windowed retransmission and sequencing (to make sure things are presented in the order they were sent). TCP is a complex protocol under the hood, but it is simple for the user.
Network documentation can aid in other situations as well. A properly documented network should be able to help with disaster recovery. Any other IT professional should be able to come in and install and configure the same basic network from scratch using the documentation, for instance if the hardware becomes damaged or broken. The documentation can also help with security because during the auditing and documenting process, some security risks may become apparent.
To document TCP/IP configuration you should gather all the basic WAN and LAN configuration details. Perhaps begin with the Internet connection details:
Next work on gathering all the basic LAN details:
Next you should list all the subnets with associated details like their VLAN and QoS IDs and provide a summary of their designated use, like VoIP traffic or guest access. You may want to list designated IP ranges within each of the subnets and provide a summary of their intended use. Plus consider listing DHCP pools and statically assigned IPs separately.